Ese koko Afrika nta bushobozi ifite bwo kubungabunga ibinyabugeni byayo yibwe mu gihe cy’ubukoloni?

Written by on January 3, 2019

Mu gushyingo 2018, nibwo Felwine Sarr (mwalimu muri kaminuza Gaston-Berger de Saint Louis, Sénégal) na Bénédicte Savoy (mwalimu muri Technische Universsitat, Ubudage) basohoye rapport y’amapaji 232, isaba ko ibinyabugeni nyafrika bibitswe mu nzu ndangamurage zo mu bufransa byasubizwa muri Afrika.

Iyi raporo igaragaza ko inzu ndangamurage (musée) Quai-Branly ubwayo ibitse ibinyabugeni nyafrika bisaga 70.000.

Ibi binyabugeni bikaba byaribwe mu bihe by’ubucakara n’ubukoloni. Mu ntambara zinyuranye ibihugu by’iburayi byagabye muri Afrika, ibinyabugeni, imirambo y’inyamaswa ndetse n’abantu (ahanini bishwe baciwe imitwe mu rwego rwo kubigiraho ubumenyamuntu), byazanywe i Burayi.

Leta, abakuru b’ingabo, abanyamadini n’abigaga iby’ubumenyi bwa muntu nibo ahanini basahuye imitungo ndangamuco mu bihugu bitandukanye byo muri Afrika.

Nko mubufransa ubwabwo, hakozwe ingendo zirenga 4 350 z’amato hagati y’ikinyejana cya 17 n’icya 19. Aya mato yabaga yuzuyemo abacakara, nk’uko bizwi. Si abacakara gusa, kuko amabuye y’agaciro, inyamaswa, n’ibinyabugeni ndanga muco/murage nyafrika byabaga byuzuye muri aya mato.

Ubufransa buza ku mwanya wa 4 ku bwinshi bw’ingendo z’amato yakoraga ubu busahuzi. Ushingiye kuri uyu mubare, ubwabyo bitanga ikigereranyo cy’ubwinshi bw’umutungo wibwe.

Kuki ibi ibirango ndangamuco/murage byibwe, bidasubizwa Afrika?

Kuva raporo ya Sarr/Savoy yajya ahagaragara, benshi mu batishimira ko umutungo ndangamurage nyafrika wasubizwa ibihugu ukomomokamo (cyane cyane muséees ibi binyabugeni bibitsemo), babishingira ko Afrika idafite ubushobozi bwo kubungabunga uyu mutungo. Bwaba ubushobozi bw’amikoro cyangwa se ubushobozi buke bushingiye kuri kamere y’abanyafrika idaha agaciro ubwiza bw’ibihangano ndangamuco.

Ndifuza gutinda cyane kuri iyi mpamvu ya 2. Iyi mpamvu ubwayo yuzuyemo irondaruhu, agasuzuguro no gupfobya ubushobozi nyabwenge bw’abanyafrika. Ni nk’aho bavuze ko abanyafrika ari injiji muri kamere yabo. Injiji zitazi kwishimira ubwiza bw’ibihangano ndangamuco/murage.

None se ni gute wahanga ikintu, ntumenye kucyishimira?

None se bivuze ko uwahanze igihangano yagihanze atazi ibyo akora? Ko umwanya yamaze abumba, abaza, aboha, atarazi ibyo arimo akora? Nk’ikiremwa kitagira ubwenge cyisanze kibumba, maze kubw’amahirwe gikora ishusho y’umuntu, kibaaza ibikoresho gakondo, ….

Ukuri kwihishe inyuma y’uku kudashaka gusubiza umutungo ndangamuco wa Afrika n’uko uyu mutungo ugize ubukungu bw’ibihigu biwubitse.

Amateka maremare akubiye mu birango nyafrika afite agaciro gakomeye. Ibihumbi magana by’ibihangano nyafrika bigarutse, ni inzu nyinshi ndangamurage i Burayi n’ahandi zafunga imiryango.

Prezida Macron yihaye imyaka itanu ngo ibisabwa bishyirwe mu bikorwa

Mu ijambo prezida w’ubufransa Emmanuel Macron yavuguye i Ouagadougou mu gushyingo 2017, yavuze ko “umutungo nyafrika utagomba kubikwa n’abantu ku giti cyabo ndetse n’ibigo ndangamurage i Burayi gusa…”. Yakomeje avuga ko yihaye “imyaka 5 kugirango ibisabwa byose bishyirwe mu bikorwa kugirango ibinyabugeni nyafrika bisubizwe muri Afrika“.

Nubwo ijambo rye ryakiriwe neza, ibyo yemeye bishobora kutazagerwaho, ukurikije ibyo raporo Sarr/Savoy isaba gukorwa. Muri iyi raporo, aba balimu muri kaminuza baragira inama habanza hagasubizwa ibinyabugeni 25 bisabwa kuva kera na Benin, Sénégal, Ethiopie, Cameroun na Mali.

Ibi bikozwe nta gashya kaba karimo kuko gahunda yo gusubiza ibi binyabugeni yatangiye kuva kera.

Ikindi raporo isaba kigoye gushyirwa mu bikorwa mu myaka 4 isigaye, ni ugusubiza umutungo wose urimo uwibwe n’abasirikare b’abafransa mu bihe by’intambara mu gihe cy’ubukoloni, uwasahuwe n’abasivile b’abanyaburayi, abanyabumenyi bwa muntu (scientifiques ou ethnologues), kuva mu mwaka wa 1960.

Ibisabwa ariko bikaba byashirwa mu bikorwa nyuma yo guhindura amategeko ku bijyanye n’umutungo bwite, n’igihe witwa bwite mugihe waba udafitiwe icyemezo cy’ubuguzi. Amategeko akaba asaba igihe kinini kuko abanza kugibwaho impaka mu nteko ishinga amategeko. Iki gihe gishobora kurenga imyaka 5 prezida w’ubufransa yihaye.

 

 

 

 


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